Urinary Tract Infection: Its Risk factors Diagnosis and the Prevention
Urinary tract infection is the most common type of infection of your urinary system. UTI can involve any part of your urinary system, such as:Urinary tract infection is the most common type of infection of your urinary system. UTI can involve any part of your urinary system, such as:

Urinary tract infection is the most common type of infection of your urinary system. UTI can involve any part of your urinary system, such as:

  • Urethra
  • Ureters
  • Bladder
  • Kidneys

Symptoms of Urinary Tract Infection

In urinary tract infection lining of the urinary tract become red and irritated which can produce many symptoms such as:

  • Pain in the abdomen and also in pelvic areas.
  • Pressure in the lower pelvis.
  • Painful urination (dysuria) and blood in the urine.
  • Pain during sex.
  • Penis pain.
  • Fatigue
  • Fever temperature above 100 Fahrenheit and chills during fever.
  • Vomiting.
  • Mental changes and also confusion.

Some other symptoms may include:

  • Urine also appears cloudy.
  • Strong smelling urine.
  • Urine that appears red, bright pink and also cola in color.
  • A frequent urge to pee.


Urinary tract infections basically start when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to multiply in the bladder.

The most common UTIs occur in women and affect mostly the bladder and also the urethra. Women have shorter urethra as compared to men that is why; bacteria are more likely to reach the bladder or kidney and also can cause an infection.

Thinks that can increase the chance of bacteria to enter the bladder are such as:

  • Having sex
    • Pregnancy
    • Kidney stones
    • Conditions that make it difficult to empty bladder such as enlarged prostate gland in men and constipation in children.
    • People that having weakened immune system such as people with diabetes.
    • Not drinking enough amount of water.
    • Not keeping the genital area clean and dry.


The different types of UTI are following

1.       Cystitis

Infection of the bladder is known as cystitis.

2.       Urethritis

Infection of the urethra is known as urethritis.

3.       Pyelonephritis

Infection of the kidneys.

4.       Vaginitis

Infection of the vagina also known as vaginitis.

Risk factors

Urinary tract infections are more common in women. Risk factors specific to women are such as:

  • Female urinary tract anatomy

Woman has shorter urethra as compared to man, which shortens the distance for bacteria to reach the bladder.

  • Sexual activity

Sexually active woman also has more chance to get UTI. Woman who is not sexually active has less chance to get UTI infection.

  • Women who use certain type of birth control may be at higher risk.
  • Menopause.

Other risk factors are following:

  • Urinary tract abnormalities
  • Blockage in the urinary tract due to kidney stones and enlarged prostate.

Other health problems such as

  • Structural issues in the urinary system
  • Backward flow of the urine from the bladder –vesicoureteral reflux
  • Diabetes
  • Weak immunity
  • Kidney stones
  • Prior kidney transplant sickle cell disease and also nervous system diseases that make it difficult to bladder to fully empty.
  • Taking certain kind of medications can raise the risk of UTI such as antibiotics.


Laboratory tests are performed to diagnose UTIs

Common laboratory tests are such as :

  1. Urinalysis

Performing, this looks for evidence of infection, such as bacteria and white blood cells in the urine sample.

  •  Urine culture

Identifies the specific microbes that are causing the infection.

Some imaging test are also performed such as

  1. Kidney and bladder ultrasound
  2. Voiding cystourethrogram (Imaging technique in which doctor can view the urethra and bladder in real time while the bladder fills and empties).
  3. Nuclear scans also used
  4. Cystoscopy also perform
  5. Intravenous pyelogram also perform
  • Renal parenchymal abscess
  • Also, Multiple renal cortical abscesses
  • Perinephric abscess
  • Pyonephrosis
  • Renal papillary necrosis
  • Chronic pyelonephritis
  • Acute prostatitis
  • Acute epididymitis
  • Urosepsis

Urinary Tract Infection Prevention

There are several things a person can do to prevent from the urinary tract infection such as:

  • Stay hydrated
  • Urinate after sexual intercourse
  • Avoid using spermicidal
  • Wear cotton underwear
  • Wipe front to back
  • Decrease caffeine intake
  • Decrease alcohol intake
  • Use menstrual cups
  • sanitary pads,
  • period-proof underwear
  • Frequent urination
  • Antibiotics
  • Pain relievers
  • Heating pads
  • Appropriate dress
  • Cranberry juice

By Sajid Saleem

An expert engaged in a profession or branch of learning. Education is concerned with the study of mental processes and behavior of people as individuals or in groups, and applies this knowledge to promoting the adaptation and development of education or profession. Review key concepts and explore new topics. We are specialist trainers and responsibly trying to increase productivity by giving new skills and knowledge to the teachers. We write very helpful content for teachers to improve their classroom teaching. So that They may use seminars, lectures, and team exercises to update their skills on institutions goals and procedures.

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